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Brain lobes

Brain lobes

Brain lobes

The structure of the brain is such that the right and left hemispheres symmetrically face each other. Each hemisphere is made up of four lobes. Each lobe has different functions and roles in thinking, perceiving, reacting, and behaving in an environment. Damage to any of the lobes of the brain leads to neurological disorders. Brain lobes are named according to the related bones, and the boundaries of these lobes are where the scalp bones join together.


Frontal lobe

Frontal lobe is the largest of the four major lobes of the brain in mamals and is located at the front of each cerebral hemispheres (in front of the parietal lobe and the temporal lobe). This lobe is the center of cognitive thinking and forms the overall structure of a person's personality. The entirety of the frontal cortex can be considered the "action cortex", much as the posterior cortex is considered the “sensory cortex". The function of the frontal lobe involves planning, reasoning, organizing thoughts and behavior, judging, etc., and generally discriminate us from animals. The frontal lobe is in a dangerous position and is very vulnerable.



Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the major lobes in the brain, roughly located at the upper back area in the skull, behind the central groove and above the occipital lobe. It processes sensory information it receives from the outside world, mainly relating to touch, taste, and temperature. Damage to the parietal lobe may lead to dysfunction in the senses.



Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is located at the back of the skull and is the smallest lobe of the brain. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one). There are many extrastriate regions, and these are specialized for different visual tasks, such as visuospatial processing, color differentiation, and motion perception. Occipital lobe is in a safer position, however, in case of damage, it will lead to problems such as disorders in the visual and perceptual system and complete or incomplete loss of vision.



Temporal lobe

It is the lower lobe of the cortex, sitting close to ear level within the skull. The temporal lobe is mainly responsible for creating and preserving both conscious and long-term memory. Adjacent areas in the superior, posterior, and lateral parts of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. The temporal lobe is involved in primary auditory perception, such as hearing, and holds the primary auditory cortex. The primary auditory cortex receives sensory information from the ears and secondary areas process the information into meaningful units such as speech and words. The temporal lobe holds the primary auditory cortex, which is important for the processing of semantics in both language and vision in humans.



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